Using the Skupper CLI

Using the skupper command-line interface (CLI) allows you to create and manage Skupper sites from the context of the current namespace.

A typical workflow is to create a site, link sites together, and expose services to the service network.

Installing the skupper CLI

Installing the skupper command-line interface (CLI) provides a simple method to get started with Skupper.

Procedure
  1. Install the skupper command-line interface.

    For Linux:

    $ curl -fL https://github.com/skupperproject/skupper/releases/download/1.0/skupper-cli-1.0-linux-amd64.tgz | tar -xzf -

    For MacOS:

    $ curl -fL https://github.com/skupperproject/skupper/releases/download/1.0/skupper-cli-1.0-mac-amd64.tgz | tar -xzf -
  2. Copy the skupper executable to a directory in your $PATH:

    $ mkdir -p $HOME/bin
    $ export PATH=$PATH:$HOME/bin
    $ mv skupper $HOME/bin
  3. Verify the installation.

    $ skupper version
    client version 1.0

Creating a site using the CLI

A service network consists of Skupper sites. This section describes how to create a site using the default settings.

Prerequisites
  • The skupper CLI is installed.

  • You are logged into the cluster.

  • The services you want to expose on the service network are in the active namespace.

Procedure
  1. Create a default site:

    $ skupper init
  2. Check the site:

    $ skupper status
    
    Skupper is enabled for namespace "west" in interior mode. It is not connected to any other sites.
    The default message above is displayed when you initialize a site on a cluster that does not have the policy system installed. If you install the policy system as described in Securing a service network using policies, the message becomes Skupper is enabled for namespace "west" in interior mode (with policies).

The default site settings include:

  • console - The Skupper console is provisioned with a single user. The password for the admin user is stored in the skupper-console-users secret. For more information on the console, see Using the Skupper console.

  • site name - The site name defaults to the namespace name, for example, west.

Custom sites

The default skupper init creates sites that satisfy typical requirements.

If you require a custom configuration, note the following options:

  • Creating a site without a console:

    $ skupper init --enable-console false
  • Configuring console authentication. There are a number of skupper options regarding authentication for the console:

    --console-auth <authentication-mode>

    Set the authentication mode for the console:

    • openshift - Use OpenShift authentication, so that users who have permission to log into OpenShift and view the Project (namespace) can view the console.

    • internal - Use Skupper authentication, see the console-user and console-password options.

    • unsecured - No authentication, anyone with the URL can view the console.

    --console-user <username>

    Username for the console user when authentication mode is set to internal. Defaults to admin.

    --console-password <password>

    Password for the console user when authentication mode is set to internal. If not specified, a random passwords is generated.

  • Configuring service access

    $ skupper init --create-network-policy
    All sites are associated with a namespace, called the active namespace in this procedure.

    Services in the active namespace may be accessible to pods in other namespaces on that cluster by default, depending on your cluster network policies. As a result, you can expose services to pods in namespaces not directly connected to the service network. This setting applies a network policy to restrict access to services to those pods in the active namespace.

    For example, if you create a site in the namespace projectA of clusterA and link that site to a service network where the database service is exposed, the database service is available to pods in projectB of clusterA.

    You can use the --create-network-policy option to restrict the database service access to projectA of clusterA.

Linking sites

A service network consists of Skupper sites. This section describes how to link sites to form a service network.

Linking two sites requires a single initial directional connection. However:

  • Communication between the two sites is bidirectional, only the initial linking is directional.

  • The choice of direction for linking is typically determined by accessibility. For example, if you are linking an OpenShift Dedicated cluster with a CodeReady Containers cluster, you must link from the CodeReady Containers cluster to the OpenShift Dedicated cluster because that route is accessible.

Procedure
  1. Determine the direction of the link. If both clusters are publicly addressable, then the direction is not significant. If one of the clusters is addressable from the other cluster, perform step 2 below on the addressable cluster.

  2. Generate a token on the cluster that you want to link to:

    $ skupper token create <filename>

    where <filename> is the name of a YAML file that is saved on your local filesystem.

    This file contains a key and the location of the site that created it.

    Access to this file provides access to the service network. Protect it appropriately.

    For more information about protecting access to the service network, see Using Skupper tokens.

  3. Use a token on the cluster that you want to connect from:

    1. Create a link to the service network:

      $ skupper link create <filename> [-name <link-name>]

      where <filename> is the name of a YAML file generated from the skupper token create command and <link-name> is the name of the link.

    2. Check the link:

      $ skupper link status
      Connection for link1 not active

      In this example no <link-name> was specified, the name defaulted to link1.

  4. If you want to delete a link:

    $ skupper link delete <link-name>

    where <link-name> is the name of the link specified during creation.

Exposing services on the service network from a namespace

After creating a service network, exposed services can communicate across that network.

The skupper CLI has two options for exposing services that already exist in a namespace:

Exposing simple services on the service network

This section describes how services can be enabled for a service network for simple use cases.

Procedure
  1. Create a deployment, some pods, or a service in one of your sites, for example:

    $ kubectl create deployment hello-world-backend --image quay.io/skupper/hello-world-backend

    This step is not Skupper-specific, that is, this process is unchanged from standard processes for your cluster.

  2. Create a service that can communicate on the service network:

    $ skupper expose [deployment <name>|pods <selector>|statefulset <statefulsetname>|service <name>]

    where

    • <name> is the name of your deployment

    • <selector> is a pod selector

    • <statefulsetname> is the name of a statefulset

    For the example deployment in step 1, you create a service using the following command:

    $ skupper expose deployment/hello-world-backend --port 8080

    Options for this command include:

    • --port <port-number>:: Specify the port number that this service is available on the service network. NOTE: You can specify more than one port by repeating this option.

    • --target-port <port-number>:: Specify the port number of pods that you want to expose.

    • --protocol <protocol> allows you specify the protocol you want to use, tcp, http or http2

If you do not specify ports, skupper uses the containerPort value of the deployment.

Exposing complex services on the service network

This section describes how services can be enabled for a service network for more complex use cases.

Procedure
  1. Create a deployment, some pods, or a service in one of your sites, for example:

    $ kubectl create deployment hello-world-backend --image quay.io/skupper/hello-world-backend

    This step is not Skupper-specific, that is, this process is unchanged from standard processes for your cluster.

  2. Create a service that can communicate on the service network:

    $ skupper service create <name> <port>

    where

    • <name> is the name of the service you want to create

    • <port> is the port the service uses

    For the example deployment in step 1, you create a service using the following command:

    $ skupper service create hello-world-backend 8080
  3. Bind the service to a cluster service:

    $ skupper service bind <service-name> <target-type> <target-name>

    where

    • <service-name> is the name of the service on the service network

    • <target-type> is the object you want to expose, deployment, statefulset, pods, or service.

    • <target-name> is the name of the cluster service

    • --protocol <protocol> allows you specify the protocol you want to use, tcp, http or http2

    For the example deployment in step 1, you bind the service using the following command:

    $ skupper service bind hello-world-backend deployment hello-world-backend

Exposing services from a different namespace to the service network

This section shows how to expose a service from a namespace where Skupper is not deployed.

Prerequisites
  • A namespace where Skupper is deployed.

  • A service running in a different namespace.

  • A network policy that allows communication between the namespaces

    1. Log into your cluster and change to the namespace for your site.

    2. Expose the service on the service network:

      $ skupper expose service <service>.<namespace> --address <service>
      • <service> - the name of the service on the service network.

      • <namespace> - the name of the namespace where the service you want to expose runs.

      For example, if you deployed Skupper in the east namespace and you created a backend service in the east-backend namespace, you set the context to the east namespace and expose the service as backend on the service network using:

      $ skupper expose service backend.east-backend --port 8080 --address backend

      You can only expose services from other namespaces. If you want to expose a deployment from another namespace, create a service from the deployment before you try to expose it.

Exposing services on the service network from a local machine

After creating a service network, you can expose services from a local machine on the service network.

For example, if you run a database on a server in your data center, you can deploy a front end in a cluster that can access the data as if the database was running in the cluster.

Exposing simple local services to the service network

This section shows how to expose a single service running locally on a service network.

Prerequisites
  • A service network. Only one site is required.

  • Access to the service network.

Procedure
  1. Run your service locally.

  2. Log into your cluster and change to the namespace for your site.

  3. Expose the service on the service network:

    $ skupper gateway expose <service> localhost <port>
    • <service> - the name of the service on the service network.

    • <port> - the port that runs the service locally.

    You can also expose services from other machines on your local network, for example if MySQL is running on a dedicated server (with an IP address of 192.168.1.200), but you are accessing the cluster from a machine in the same network:

    $ skupper gateway expose mysql 192.168.1.200 3306
  4. Check the status of Skupper gateways:

    $ skupper gateway status
    
    Gateway Definition:
    ╰─ machine-user type:service version:1.18.0
       ╰─ Bindings:
          ╰─ mydb:3306 tcp mydb:3306 127.0.0.1 3306

    This shows that there is only one exposed service and that service is only exposing a single port (BIND). There are no ports forwarded to the local host.

    The URL field shows the underlying communication and can be ignored.

Working with complex local services on the service network

This section shows more advanced usage of skupper gateway.

  1. Create a Skupper gateway:

    $ skupper gateway init --type <gateway-type>

    By default a service type gateway is created, however you can also specify:

    • podman

    • docker

  2. Create a service that can communicate on the service network:

    $ skupper service create <name> <port>

    where

    • <name> is the name of the service you want to create

    • <port> is the port the service uses

    For example:

    $ skupper service create mydb 3306
  3. Bind the service on the service network:

    $ skupper gateway bind <service> <host> <port>
    • <service> - the name of the service on the service network, mydb in the example above.

    • <host> - the host that runs the service.

    • <port> - the port the service is running on, 3306 from the example above.

  4. Check the status of Skupper gateways:

    $ skupper gateway status
    Gateway Definitions Summary
    
    Gateway Definition:
    ╰─ machine-user type:service version:1.18.0
       ╰─ Bindings:
          ╰─ mydb:3306 tcp mydb:3306 127.0.0.1 3306

    This shows that there is only one exposed service and that service is only exposing a single port (BIND). There are no ports forwarded to the local host.

    The URL field shows the underlying communication and can be ignored.

    You can create more services in the service network and bind more local services to expose those services on the service network.

  5. Forward a service from the service network to the local machine.

    $ skupper gateway forward <service> <port>

    where

    • <service> is the name of an existing service on the service network.

    • <port> is the port on the local machine that you want to use.

Creating a gateway and applying it on a different machine

If you have access to a cluster from one machine but want to create a gateway to the service network from a different machine, you can create the gateway definition bundle on the first machine and later apply that definition bundle on a second machine as described in this procedure. For example, if you want to expose a local database service to the service network, but you never want to access the cluster from the database server, you can use this procedure to create the definition bundle and apply it on the database server.

Procedure
  1. Log into your cluster from the first machine and change to the namespace for your site.

  2. Create a service that can communicate on the service network:

    $ skupper service create <name> <port>

    where

    • <name> is the name of the service you want to create

    • <port> is the port the service uses

    For example:

    $ skupper service create database 5432
  3. Create a YAML file to represent the service you want to expose, for example:

    name: database (1)
    bindings:
        - name: database (2)
          host: localhost (3)
          service:
            address: database:5432 (4)
            protocol: tcp (5)
            ports:
                - 5432 (6)
          target_ports:
            - 5432 (7)
    qdr-listeners:
        - name: amqp
          host: localhost
          port: 5672
    1 Gateway name, useful for reference only.
    2 Binding name, useful to track multiple bindings.
    3 Name of host providing the service you want to expose.
    4 Service name and port on service network. You created the service in a previous step.
    5 The protocol you want to use to expose the service, tcp, http or http2.
    6 The port on the service network that you want this service to be available on.
    7 The port of the service running on the host specified in point 3.
  4. Save the YAML file using the name of the gateway, for example, gateway.yaml.

  5. Generate a bundle that can be applied to the machine that hosts the service you want to expose on the service network:

    $ skupper gateway generate-bundle <config-filename> <destination-directory>

    where:

    • <config-filename> - the name of the YAML file, including suffix, that you generated in the previous step.

    • <destination-directory> - the location where you want to save the resulting gateway bundle, for example ~/gateways.

    For example:

    $ skupper gateway generate-bundle database.yaml ./

    This bundle contains the gateway definition YAML and a certificate that allow access to the service network.

  6. Copy the gateway definition file, for example, mylaptop-jdoe.tar.gz to the machine that hosts the service you want to expose on the service network.

  7. From the machine that hosts the service you want to expose:

    $ mkdir gateway
    
    $ tar -xvf <gateway-definition-file> --directory gateway
    $ cd gateway
    $ sh ./launch.py
    Use ./launch.py -t podman or ./launch.py -t docker to run the Skupper router in a container.

    Running the gateway bundle uses the gateway definition YAML and a certificate to access and expose the service on the service network.

  8. Check the status of the gateway service:

    To check a service type gateway:

    $ systemctl --user status <gateway-definition-name>

    To check a podman type gateway:

    $ podman inspect

    To check a docker type gateway:

    $ docker inspect
    You can later remove the gateway using ./remove.py.
  9. From the machine with cluster access, check the status of Skupper gateways:

    $ skupper gateway status
    Gateway Definitions Summary
    
    NAME    BINDS  FORWARDS  URL
    <machine-name>  1      0         amqp://127.0.0.1:5672

    This shows that there is only one exposed service and that service is only exposing a single port (BIND). There are no ports forwarded to the local host.

If you need to change the gateway definition, for example to change port, you need to remove the existing gateway and repeat this procedure from the start to redefine the gateway.

Gateway YAML reference

The Creating a gateway and applying it on a different machine describes how to create a gateway to apply on a separate machine using a gateway definition YAML file.

The following are valid entries in a gateway definition YAML file.

name

Name of gateway

bindings.name

Name of binding for a single host.

bindings.host

Hostname of local service.

bindings.service

Definition of service you want to be available on service network.

bindings.service.address

Address on the service network, name and port.

bindings.service.protocol

Skupper protocol, tcp, http or http2.

bindings.service.ports

A single port that becomes available on the service network.

bindings.service.target_ports

A single port that you want to expose on the service network.

If the local service requires more than one port, create separate bindings for each port.
forwards.name

Name of forward for a single host.

forwards.host

Hostname of local service.

forwards.service

Definition of service you want to be available locally.

forwards.service.address

Address on the service network that you want to use locally, name and port.

forwards.service.protocol

Skupper protocol, tcp, http or http2.

forwards.service.ports

A single port that is available on the service network.

forwards.service.target_ports

A single port that you want to use locally.

If the network service requires more than one port, create separate forwards for each port.
qdr-listeners

Definition of skupper router listeners

qdr-listeners.name

Name of skupper router, typically amqp.

qdr-listeners.host

Hostname for skupper router, typically localhost.

qdr-listeners.port

Port for skupper router, typically 5672.

Exploring a service network

Skupper includes a command to allow you report all the sites and the services available on a service network.

Prerequisites
  • A service network with more than one site

Procedure
  1. Set your Kubernetes context to a namespace on the service network.

  2. Use the following command to report the status of the service network:

    $ skupper network status

    For example, the following shows the output for the service network created from the Creating a service network with OpenShift tutorial from the west namespace:

    Sites:
    ├─ [local] 4dba248 - west  (1)
    │  URL: 10.96.146.236 (2)
    │  name: west (3)
    │  namespace: west
    │  version: 0.8.6 (4)
    │  ╰─ Services:
    │     ╰─ name: hello-world-backend (5)
    │        address: hello-world-backend: 8080 (6)
    │        protocol: tcp (7)
    ╰─ [remote] bca99d1 - east (8)
       URL:
       name: east
       namespace: east
       sites linked to: 4dba248-west (9)
       version: 0.8.6
       ╰─ Services:
          ╰─ name: hello-world-backend
             address: hello-world-backend: 8080
             protocol: tcp
             ╰─ Targets:
                ╰─ name: hello-world-backend-7dfb45b98d-mhskw (10)
    1 The unique identifier of the site associated with the current context, that is, the west namespace
    2 The URL of the service network router. This is required for other sites to connect to this site and is different from the console URL. If you require the URL of the console, use the skupper status command to display that URL.
    3 The site name. By default, skupper uses the name of the current namespace. If you want to specify a site name, use skupper init --site-name <site-name>.
    4 The version of Skupper running the site. The site version can be different from the current skupper CLI version. To update a site to the version of the CLI, use skupper update.
    5 The name of a service exposed on the service network.
    6 The address of a service exposed on the service network.
    7 The protocol of a service exposed on the service network.
    8 The unique identifier of a remote site on the service network.
    9 The sites that the remote site is linked to.
    10 The name of the local Kubernetes object that is exposed on the service network. In this example, this is the hello-world-backend pod.

    The URL for the east site has no value because that site was initialized without ingress using the following command:

    $ skupper init --ingress none

Securing a service network

Skupper provides default, built-in security that scales across clusters and clouds. This section describes additional security you can configure.

See Securing a service network using policies for information about creating granular policies for each cluster.

Restricting access to services using network-policy

By default, if you expose a service on the service network, that service is also accessible from other namespaces in the cluster. You can avoid this situation when creating a site using the --create-network-policy option.

Procedure
  1. Create the service network router with a network policy:

    $ skupper init --create-network-policy
  2. Check the site status:

    $ skupper status

    The output should be similar to the following:

    Skupper enabled for namespace 'west'. It is not connected to any other sites.

You can now expose services on the service network and those services are not accessible from other namespaces in the cluster.

Applying TLS to HTTP2 traffic on the service network

By default, the traffic between sites is encrypted, however the traffic between the service pod and the router pod is not encrypted. For services exposed as HTTP2, the traffic between the pod and the router pod can be encrypted using TLS.

Prerequisites
  • Two or more linked sites

  • A HTTP2 frontend and backend service

Procedure
  1. Deploy your backend service.

  2. Expose your backend deployment on the service network, enabling TLS, for example:

    $ skupper expose deployment <deployment-name> --port 443 --protocol http2 --enable-tls

    Enabling TLS creates the necessary certificates required for TLS backends and stores them in a secret named skupper-tls-<deployment-name>.

  3. Modify the backend deployment to include the generated certificates, for example:

    ...
        spec:
          containers:
          ...
            command:
            ...
            - "/certs/tls.key"
            - "/certs/tls.crt"
            ...
            volumeMounts:
            ...
            - mountPath: /certs
              name: certs
              readOnly: true
          volumes:
          - name: index-html
            configMap:
              name: index-html
          - name: certs
            secret:
              secretName: skupper-tls-<deployment-name>

    Each site creates the necessary certificates required for TLS clients and stores them in a secret named skupper-service-client.

  4. Modify the frontend deployment to include the generated certificates, for example:

    spec:
      template:
        spec:
          containers:
          ...
            volumeMounts:
            - name: certs
              mountPath: /tmp/certs/skupper-service-client
          ...
          volumes:
          - name: certs
            secret:
              secretName: skupper-service-client
  5. Test calling the service from a TLS enabled frontend.

Supported standards and protocols

Skupper supports the following protocols for your service network:

  • TCP - default

  • HTTP1

  • HTTP2

When exposing or creating a service, you can specify the protocol, for example:

$ skupper expose deployment hello-world-backend --port 8080 --protocol <protocol>

where <protocol> can be:

  • tcp

  • http

  • http2

When choosing which protocol to specify, note the following:

  • tcp supports any protocol overlayed on TCP, for example, HTTP1 and HTTP2 work when you specify tcp.

  • If you specify http or http2, the IP address reported by a client may not be accessible.

  • All service network traffic is converted to AMQP messages in order to traverse the service network.

    TCP is implemented as a single streamed message, whereas HTTP1 and HTTP2 are implemented as request/response message routing.

CLI options for working with different clusters

By default, all skupper commands apply to the cluster you are logged into and the current namespace. The following skupper options allow you to override that behavior and apply to all commands:

--namespace <namespace-name>

Apply command to <namespace-name>. For example, if you are currently working on frontend namespace and want to initialize a site in the backend namespace:

$ skupper init --namespace backend
--kubeconfig <kubeconfig-path>

Path to the kubeconfig file - This allows you run multiple sessions to a cluster from the same client. An alternative is to set the KUBECONFIG environment variable.

--context <context-name>

The kubeconfig file can contain defined contexts, and this option allows you to use those contexts.